Kenneth uses a contemporary harm reduction approach with motivational interviewing. An addiction can be to any substance (alcohol, amphetamines, cocaine, nicotine, opioids, sedatives, hallucinogens, inhalants, cannabis, caffeine, etc), which, when ingested, alter the natural chemical behavior of the brain.
Motivational interviewing is a type of therapy that prepares individuals for change without requiring change upfront. It is a very focused activity and requires you to explore your own behavior and recognize where change is needed Besides substances, addiction also includes dependency on “things”, such things as food, sex, porn, and gambling. Addictions have both a physical and a psychological component. Physical addiction and dependency on a substance is defined by the appearance of withdrawal symptoms when the drug is suddenly discontinued. Most substances listed above are all well known for their ability to induce physical dependence and addiction.
While physical dependency can be a major factor in the psychology of addiction, the primary attribute of an addictive drug is its ability to induce an altered feeling state while causing harm. Psychological addiction, as opposed to physical addiction, is a person’s need to use a drug or engage in a behavior out of desire for the effects it produces. Thus, addictions are often set in place in order to manage and relieve symptoms of loneliness, anxiety, depression, and feelings of worthlessness. As the drug and/or behavior is indulged, it becomes associated with the release of pleasure and avoidance of pain, and a cycle is started that is similar to physiological addiction. This cycle is often very difficult to break.
It is quite common for someone to express the desire to stop the behavior, but find that they are unable to stop the addictive behaviour. The most common of the psychological addictions include dependency on such things as sex and pornography, food and eating, and gambling